Distribution of Water and Land on Earth

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We live on the land which constitutes 71% of area covered with water and 29% of the area of Earth. The huge bodies of water are called the seas and oceans and the big land masses are known as continents.

Continents

On the Earth there are seven continents. These continents are named as Asia, Europe, Africa, North America, South America, Australia and Antarctica.

1.           The Continent of Asia

             The word "Asia" means the "Home of Man" It is the largest continent in size, population and diversity of land regions. It is almost one-third of the Earth's surface. It is the birth place of the oldest civilization. It is home of countless inventions including magnet, compass, paper, compact disc etc. The Caspian sea, the world largest lake, plateau of Tibet, the world's highest mountain ranges are all situated here. Most of the continent has an average temperature above 15.5 C or 60 F. Most of the continent receives much rainfall in the summer, In winter, the interior and the North become extremely cold.

            Most of the North is below freezing point in January. Some famous cities of Asia are Karachi, Kolkata, Dhaka, Tokyo, Beijing, Shanghai, Hong Kong and Singapore.

2.         The Continent of Europe

           Europe is the birth place of western civilization. The ancient Greek and Romans developed western traditions for art, science and law. many forests in Europe were destroyed for farming and to provide timber for industries and ship-making.

Europe is rich in mineral resources Iron ore, Coal, Zinc, Lead, Copper, Platinum, Aluminium, Sulphur and Mercury are common minerals. These minerals have helped Europe become industrialized on a large scale. Its means of transportation are highly developed. Some of the famous cities of Europe are London, Paris, Amsterdam, Berlin, Rome, Geneva, Athens, Copenhagen, Brussels etc. the worlds smallest country "Vatican City" is also located in Europe.

3.          The Continent of Africa

             Africa is the second largest continent in size. The Read Sea separates it from Asia. But it is joined to Asia through the Isthmus of Suez Africa is the home of about 117 million people.

            It is very rich in precious metals like Gold and Diamond. The world's largest desert "Sahara" and world's longest river "Nile" belong to the continent. Its interior parts have dense jungles wild animals like lions, tigers, elephants, giraffes, zebras, hippopotami, panthers, apes, baboons, chimpanzees and rhinoceroses some famous cities of Africa are Alexandria, Rabat, Cairo, Addis Ababa, Tripoli, Tunis, Khartoum, Salisbury and Johannesburg etc.

4.       The Continents of North America

          It is highly developed continent today. This is the third largest continent in size. It is the only continent with every kind of climate. The largest island "Green Land" and world's famous waterfall "Niagara falls" are located here. It lies completely in the Northern Hemisphere.

         The Pacific Ocean is on its West. Atlantic is on its east and the Arctic Ocean is located on its North. Towards the south, the continent of South America is located.

            The chief crops grown in North America are cotton, tobecco, wheat, rice and maize. The most important minerals found in North America are Iron Ore, Nickel, Zinc, Lead, Copper, Silver and Gold. Some of the famous cities of North America are New York, Washington, Chicago, Boston, Ottawa, Montreal, Vancouver, San Francisco, Los Angeles and Mexico city.

5.       The Continent of South America

        South America is a sparsely populated continent. Its average population is to10% per square kilometre only. It is the fourth largest continent which covers about 12% of the world's land area. The world's largest rain forest and world's largest river "Amazon" are located here. The world's longest mountain chain the Andes is also located in this continent.

           Wheat, maize, coffee, cocoa, cotton and sugar-cane are produced in South America. This continent is also rich in minerals, copper, silver bauxite are found here. The most important cities of this continent are Brazil, Caracas, Buenos Aires, Sao Paulo Lima,  Rio de Janeiro, Santiago and Lapaz.

6.         The Continent of Australia

           The Smallest and the flattest continent of the world. The seasons there, are opposite to those we have in Pakistan. When it is summer in Pakistan, it is winter in Australia and when we have winter season here Australia has its summer. Most of Australia gets 25 cm average rainfall yearly Australia exports butter, cheese, beef, mutton, honey and wool.

          The minerals found there are gold, silver, bauxite, copper and petroleum. The main industries of this continent are Iron and Steel plants, ship building, oil-refinery, paper and paper-boards, food processing, textile mills, chemical and leather goods the big cities are Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane Adelaide, Perth and Hobart.

7.         The Continent of Antarctica

           It is the only continent without a country and the quietest place on Earth. It serves as the world's greatest supply of fresh water.

The ice cap holds 70% of the fresh water on this planet. On December 12, 1990, a team of 36 Pakistanis, lead by Commodore Waseem Ahmed of Pakistan Navy, set off for Antarctica. The scientists accompanying the team established a research station over there on 15th January, 1991. It was named "Jinnah Antarctica Station".

 

 

 



About the author

muhammad-haneef-khan

I am Muhammad Haneef Khan I am Administration Officer in Pakistan Public School & College, K.T.S, Haripur.

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