Salahuddin Ayyubi belonged to the Kurd tribe, who lived in Mesopotamia. In 1163 AD he became the ruler of Egypt, and captured Jerusalem in 1187 AD. He granted peace to the city and those Christians who had not participated in fighting against the Ayyubi armies were allowed to leave the city peacefully. The Christians of Europe launch another Crusade (The Third Crusade), led by the British king Richard the Lionheart, who defeated Ayyubi in some of the battles, but was finally forced to return without success. He and other Europeans who fought against Ayyubi developed great respect for this brave and generous Kurdish ruler. In western literature he is called Saladin and his name stands for bravery and good manners.