Today i want to diverge your attention towards the region of South Asia and the policies of United States towards the Countries of South Asia. Interests of United States in South Asia region.
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Nowadays the region of South Asia is receiving a very high level attention from the Washington than it did in the previous years. South Asia was so far been a region of secondary importance for the United States of America. I conclude this result from the visit of Influential American Senator Sam Brownback, who visited the New Delhi and Islamabad in the third week of January 2000. He advocated "Aggressive" United States engagement in South Asia. He wished that the United States must adopt a robust and separate policy with Pakistan and India.
The broad engagements and goals of United States South Asia Policy were actually cleared in a statement made by the White House Washington DC on 12th January 2000. This statement was accompanied by the report "A National Security Strategy for the new century". The report in also includes the new strategies for the South Asia, which also includes and urges the India and Pakistan to refrain from any action against each other.
American foreign policy towards South Asia under the president ship of George W. Bush administration was changed from that of in the previous years and then Obama`s approach was also from that of Bush`s approach towards South Asia. Since events of 9/11, the terrorists attacks at trade towers in New York, the region of South Asia has come to the top of the United States foreign policy agenda.
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It was the time when India was ruled by the Prime Minister Vajpayee, who makes a fundamental change in Indian Policy and decided to make the closer ties with the United States, which is likely to remain the World`s great power in the foreseeable future. Though the relations of United States and India have been improving steadily since the end of Cold War, but the real back through came after the meeting of India`s External Affairs Minister Jaswant singh and Deputy Secretary of States Strobe Talbott. This meeting comparises of a total of ten rounds and in the result India finally decided to bring its foreign policy closer to that of United States.
The Deputy Secretary of the United States, Talbott, cleared that the US wanted to establish a qualitatively better relations with the India. But in the meanwhile Talbott also made it clear that an early solution to the Nuclear issue with Pakistan and World would make it easier and fast to establish better relational ties between two countries.
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The continuous decline of Russia and continuous rise of India & United States Asian rival, China, as an increasingly powerful and influential country in the region of South Asia as well as in the whole world, forced the New Delhi seeks closer ties with the Washington.Also there are great ties between India And US on issues relating to liberalization, restructuring and expansion of the Indian economy. India is a big market for the United States.
Instead of focusing on short term relations with United States, Indian diplomacy concentrated on a long term and stable ties with the United States, in which there is no major conflict of interest between the two countries. However, New Delhi failed to win Washington over to its side for declaring Pakistan as a "Terrorist State"
A major brake through came in the relations of United States and India when both the countries decided to have a civil nuclear co-operation between them. The Civil Nuclear deal between India and United States is clearly a violation of the rules and principles of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation regime.This deal actually enables the India to produce Nuclear grade fuel for its military uses in the name of civil use.
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Since the independence of the Pakistan in 1947, its relations with the United States have gone through different phases. United States and Pakistan have been co-operating in economic and military relations since 1947. The diplomatic relations between both the countries resulted in SEATO and CENTO/Baghdad Pact. But during the Afghan-Russia crises/war of 1979, Pakistan became the front line state against Soviet Union with collaboration of America and became the number one ally of United States but the September 11 terror attacks changed the whole scenario dramatically and it had open a new chapter of Pakistan-US relations on war on terrorism. The terror attacks of 9/11 brought a U-turn in bilateral relations between the two countries.
American administration is praising the Pakistan regime on acts in the war of terror and providing more economic and strategic assistance in this fight against terror. But on the other hands United States is also signing several defense deals with India, the neighboring country of Pakistan. But this supportive policies of America towards India is sifting Pakistan`s regime towards Chinese side which is a great threat to the United States interests in the South Asia. The defeat of Soviet Union was not only a great victory of United States but this defeat highlighted the Pakistan`s Strategic and geographical significance in the region.
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During the regime of President Musharraf in Pakistan it was considered that Pakistan`s very active role in the war against terror alliance with the United States will open new window of opportunities for the state but United States aggressive approach and strategies against the terrorism produced a different result for Pakistan and created a security dilemma. The wave of terrorism brutalized the society in Pakistan but a United States demand for "DO-MORE" has been undermining the role of Pakistan i the war against terrorism.
The recent phase has shaken the Pakistan`s Security and Sovereignty by United States forces in the form of drone attacks and covert military operations like operation Geronimo, in which United States commandos killed Osama Bin Ladenin Abbotabad Pakistan. Such incidents causes disappointment in Pak-US bilateral relations.
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Now the Pakistan and United States relations are in absurd situation. Pakistan`s geographical appearance is what which is drawing the attention of United States towards Pakistan as it is situated at the crossroads of Central, South and Southwest Asia. From the first day of Pakistan`s Independence,United States always tries to secure his interest.
During Cold War, bilateral relations gone through different phases like United States suspended military aid to Pakistan during the Pak-Indo War in 1965. In 1975, United States temporarily resumed strategic assistance to Pakistan but a major cut down in economic aid adopted by the United States in 1979.
United states decision to outset Taliban regime in Afghanistan permitted the Pakistan to become a front line state in war on terror. United States is interested in maintaining strategic relations with Pakistan because it needs the active participation of Pakistan in fighting with terrorists and prevent the influence of religious extremists on behalf of United States of America in the region.
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In Afghanistan the Sardar Daud who had came into power after abolishing monarchy in 1973, remained in control of the country till 1978, when his government was laid down through a bloody coup. The new regime, in the result of bloody coup, was recognized by the Soviet Union immediately. The new regime came to a sudden end when the Afghan Radio announced about the resignation of the then president in Afghanistan. The Muslim rebel forces on the other side continued to wage Jihad against the regime. In the light of this situation the Russia entered his fighters into the Kabul. Russian troops started pouring into the Kabul and within a few days more than 50,000 troops were airlifted into the city of Kabul.
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In this situation United States backed Pakistan to become a front line state to cater the situation and secure his interests in the region by helping the Afghan-Taliban against Russian Forces.
Afghanistan was again the focus of the world after the terror attacks of 9/11 in United States. The new regime in the Washington DC was focusing its efforts to get rid of Osama Bin Laden and to blast away his hideouts in Afghanistan. In the meanwhile United States tried to force a resolution in United Nation which aimed at showing Taliban the stick but did not mention their opponents.
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Afghanistan is one of the most affected countries in the World in the war against terror after the terror attacks of 9/11 in United States, which receive very fast and direct impact of the attacks. The then president of United States George W. Bush wasting no time, after the attacks of 9/11, to pointing his finger towards the prime suspect and asked the Taliban government to hand over Osama Bin Laden over to the United States authorities for trial. As expected the Taliban regime`s leader Mullah Omer refused to hand over Osma Bin Laden to the US authorities. President Bush losing anytime moved to form an anti-terrorism world coalition backed by the United Nations Security Council resolution. Afghanistan was heavily bombarded continuously for almost three months. October 2001 to December 2001. The ultimate result was the collapse of Taliban regime in the second week of December 2001.
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Currently United States foreign policy towards South Asia is based on the following main points:
- To ensure the security of South Asia nuclear stockpiles against terrorists theft or diversion.
- To preventing accidental on unintentional escalation towards a nuclear war in South Asia region.
- Bringing India and Pakistan on to the table to find a lasting solution to the Kashmir issue.
Thank you for you time....Here i conclude my post today