Basic Photography Techniques for Beginners

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A. Photography
Photography (Photography) derived from the Photo (Light) and Grafo (writing / drawing), so it can be interpreted that photography is a technique of drawing with light. On this basis, it is clear that light plays an important role and become the main source of obtaining images (without light there would be no image results).

B. SLR Cameras
SLR (Single Lens Reflex) or D-SLR Camera (Digital) is a camera with a viewfinder (Viewfinder) that gives the image according to the angle of view through the lens reflection mirror located behind the lens. In general, a regular camera has a viewfinder display of different viewpoints because the viewfinder lens is not aligned with the viewing angle lens.

Photography is closely related to light (so to produce a picture is necessary to light, without light there would be no photo), the camera serves to regulate light captured image sensor (image sensors in digital cameras or film in a conventional camera). To adjust the light, there are two basic points in the camera, the shutter speed (shutter speed) and aperture (diaphragm).

C. Lens
In photography, the lens serves to focus the light to be able to burn the catcher medium (film). On the outside of the lens there is usually a three-ring, which ring the focal length (lens type variable), diaphragm ring and focus ring.

Focal length of the lens commonly called Length

The length of the lens affects:
a. DISTANCE shooting
b. Viewpoint
c. Enlargement
d. FACILITIES aperture

Special lens:
a. Macro lens (usually called Macro Lens)
b. Increasing the length of the lens (usually called Tele Converter or Extender)
c. Perspective correction lens on the subject
d. Soft lenses (commonly called Soft Focus Lens)

Various lens
Standard lenses. This lens is also called a normal lens. Measuring 50 mm and give the character a natural shot.
Wide-Angle Lens (Wide Angle Lens). This type of lens can be used to capture the broad subject in a narrow space. The character of this lens is made the subject of a smaller than actual size. By using this type of lens, in the room we can shoot more people lined up when compared with a standard lens. The shorter the distance of the focus, the more wide-view. This lens beragan sizes ranging from 17 mm, 24 mm, 28 mm, and 35 mm.
Fish Eye Lens. Fish eye lens is a wide angle lens with a diameter of 14 mm, 15 mm, and 16 mm. This lens provides a 180 degree view. The resulting warped image.
Tele lens. Telephoto lens wide angle lens is the opposite. The function of this lens is to get closer to the subject, but narrowing the viewing angle. Which includes a telephoto lens is a lens measuring 70 mm upwards. Due to the narrow view angle, telephoto lens will blur the surrounding field. However this is not a problem because a telephoto lens is used to bring the views and focus on a specific subject.
Zoom lens. A combination of tandar lens, wide angle lens and tele lesa. Idak lens fixed size, for example 80-200 mm. This lens is quite flexible and has a fairly wide range ang lens. Therefore, the zoom lens is widely used, because users turn the lens size as required.
Macro lens. Macro lens used for photographing small objects.

D. Focus
Focus is part of the set distance sharpness of the lens so that the image produced is not shaded ..

F. Shutter Speed
Shutter speed or aperture is an opening speed camera window so that light can enter into the image sensor. Unit than the shutter speed is seconds, and depends on the state of the light while shooting. Such a bright light during the day, then the shutter speed should be adjusted to be faster, such as 1/500 sec. As for the evenings are light less, then the shutter speed should be adjusted to be longer, such as 1/5 seconds. This also explains why the photograph at night tend to be opaque, that a slower shutter speed allows the movement of the camera due to hand shake to make light shifted so that the image becomes blurry / blur.

Photos with a slow shutter speed
Photos with a slow shutter speed

Photos with fast shutter speed
Photos with fast shutter speed

G. Aperture
Aperture or diaphragm is a term for the lens aperture. If likened to a window, then the diaphragm is kiray / curtains that can be opened or closed to adjust the amount of light entering. On the camera aperture is denoted by the letter F minor and the units as follows:
f / 1.2
f / 1.4
f / 1.8
f / 2.0
f / 2.8
f / 3.5
f / 4.0
etc ...

The smaller the number, the greater the unit aperture lens (f / 1.4 bigger opening than f / 4.0, f / 2.8 bigger opening than f / 16).

The aperture on the lens image
The aperture on the lens image

Thus, the correlation between shutter speed and aperture is that the larger the aperture, the shutter speed will be faster, otherwise the smaller the aperture, the shutter speed will be slowed down.

a comparison result dg photo wearing f numbers of small and large f number
note the wide range of sharp space on the third photo above. In large aperture sharp narrow space and so on.
Use a large aperture (small f number) to isolate the disturbing background. Use a small aperture (large f number) for shooting landscapes (scenery).

Some of the very term dlm photography should be understood:
 APS: Advanced Photo System
 DIL: Drop-in Loading
 CID: Cartridge Identification number
 FID: Film strip Identification number
 USC: Uniform Sigma Crystal / crystal sigma uniform
 Crystals sigma: Grains of silver halide
 AFS: Auto Focus Silent Wave Motor
 AFD: Auto Focus Distance Information
 DIR: Development Inhibitor releaser
 SPD: Silicon Photo Diode
 LCD: Liquid Crystal Display
 LED: Light Emitting Diode, light
 ISO / ASA: The degree of sensitivity of the film
 ISO: International Standard Organization
ASA: American Standards Association
DIN: Deutsche Industry Norm
NiMH: Nickel Metal Hydride
NiCd: Nickel Cadmium
DRAM: Data Random Access Memory
RISC: Reduce Intruction Set Computer
CCD: Charge Couple Device (digital camera)
CPL: Circular Polarizing
USM: Ultrasonic motors
ESP: Electro-Selective Pattern (light automatic sizing system, at a time when the brightness is very large gap condition
SLR: Single Lens reflex, single-lens camera that uses mirrors and prisms
TLR: Twin lens reflex camera that uses two lenses, one to see, other light forward separately to the film
Lens Mount: Mounting the lens
MF: Manual Focus
AF: Auto Focus
Fps: Frames per second shooting speed :, unit in pictures per second
DOF: Depth of Field; sharp space, the distance, where the picture still looks sharp / focus, depending on: the diaphragm, the length of the lens and the object distance
GN: Guide number; flash light power is the product of the distance (in meters or feet) and diaphragm
AR Range: Level aotufocus bright light where the system can still work, in units of EV
EV: Exposure Value; the power of light. Sample, EV = 0 the power light on the diaphragm f / 1.0 speed 1 sec
Exposure modes: Mode lighting, in general there are four types: manual, Aperture priority, Shutter priority and programed (auto)
Aperture: Diaphragm
Lens Hood: Lens Hoods
Aperture priority: Priority setting the aperture, shutter speed automatic
Shutter: Shutter
Shutter Priority: Priority setting the shutter speed, automatic diaphragm
Exposure Compensation: Compensation lighting, make alternate lighting of normal to be more or less
Flash Exposure Compensation: Exposure Compensation blitzt
Metering: Pattern light settings, usually divided into 3 categories, centerweighted, evaluative / matrix, and spot
Center-weighted metering: Measurement of lighting in 60% of the area center of the image
Evaluative / Matrix: Measurement of lighting based on the segments and a certain percentage
Spot: Measurement lighting only at certain points
View finder: Viewfinder
Built-in diopters: Equipped with regulator diopters (lens + or - for those who wear glasses)
Piece Eye Blind: Blinds cover the viewfinder
Interchangeable Focusing Screen: Facilities can change the focusing screen
Focusing screen: The screen focus
Bracheting: Taking the same picture using different lighting measurement
Flash Sync: Sync flash, the maximum speed that the body and the flash is still working in harmony
TTL: Through The Lens, lighting measurement system through the lens
Remote Flash: Removing the flash from the camera body and put the duatu place to get the desired picture effect
Bounce: Light flash the reflected to the ceiling or other areas so that the light evenly illuminates the object
Slave units: (flash + electric eye / elctric eye); is a tool that is capable of powering abntu flash when the eye receives light from the flash another
Wireless TTL: TTL metering system without going through the cable
Multiple exposure: Facilities repeatedly shooting at the same grandparent fram
Pupup Flash: Blitz small, made one with the body
Stop: Lighting Unit, 1 stop is equal to 1 EV
Red Eye Reduction: the facility to reduce the red-eye effect that commonly occurs in shooting using a flash at night
PC terminals: Terminal to blitz out hot shoe
Hot shoe: Foot blitz
Mirror Lock-up: Lock the mirror, so that the vibration can be reduced when the shutter moves
Shiftable program: In program mode, exposure settings can be changed automatically in the same EV, for example, from 1/125 be 1/250 sec, f 11 f 5.6 dmenjadi
Second Curtain Sync: Facility to turn on the flash just before the shutter closes
Shutter release: Release the shutter
Self Timer: Tool-hold time on camera
Vertical Grip: shutter release tool making it particularly vertical separately without having to rotate the hand
Data Imprint: Printing Facilities date data on film
Reloadable to last frame: the facility to restore the film which has been rolled in the middle to the last position of the unused
Fill In Flash: Blitz filler, the condition does not require a flash, the flash remains lit to illuminate the dark parts such as shadows
Intervalometer: automatic epmotretan facilities within a certain time
Multispot: Measurement of lighting from several points
Back: The back side of the camera, as well as the closing movie berfungis
Bayonet: lens mounting system that only requires a rotation of less than 90 degrees to the lens shift
Bulk movies: Film capacity of 250 exposures
Wide lens: wide-angle lens, possessed burning point short distance, shorter than 50 ,,, usually:
· 16-22mm (super wide lens)
· 24-35mm (medium wide lens
· 6-15mm (fish eye lens)
Push: Increased sensitivity in shooting films, eg from ISO 100-200 / more
Pull: the opposite of Push
Main light: Light charger / additional
Wedding photo: Potraiture pairs (create image recordings romance, both of pose and of the atmosphere
Wedding photos are divided into two:
Neo Classic Potraiture, is a visual form of photos paired romantic aura
Classic wedding, is the form that must be paired photo memories
Blouwer: Fans are used to shoot models to generate wind effects
Reverse ring: used to put behind the lens, to create a macro lens so that light entering the alternative does not leak
Golden section: Pieces gold; Composition law which says that harmony will be achieved if a field is the unity of the two fields that are interconnected
Composition: the arrangement of lines, shapes, tone, contrast and texture in a particular format
Silhouette: lighting technique to show the shape of objects without showing the details
Framing: Framing object to give the impression of depth / dimensional object image
Panning: The technique of taking pictures with the impression of motion (changing background menjaid lines while the main object clearly recorded
Sandwich: Techniques combine images
Cross Process: The process of cross-examination, usually done on film positiv (E6) to negative film (C 41), giving rise to new colors in photos
Photo essay: (Let the photos speak), arranging photos into stories are friends
Xposure time if not wrong does the length of time we ngebuka openings (usually in Bulb mode)
In accordance with its meaning, interpolation is one of the methods used to enlarge the size of the image with pixel multiply duplicated image size becomes larger. Usually interpolation image when viewed with care will decrease the sharpness of the image as it is not the original results of the sensor output.
HSM: Abbreviation of Hypersonic Motor. That is roughly equal to USM, auto focus is fast and silent. This code will be found in the Sigma brand lens.
AF-S: Same as the above code, the code will be found in the Nikon brand lenses.
SAM: Same as the above code, the code will be found in the Sony brand lens.
AF: Nikon lenses that do not have a built-in auto focus. In the beginner cameras like Nikon D60 and D5000, can not use this lens to auto focus, but must be with manual focus.
VR: It stands for Vibration Reduction, together with Image Stabilization function.
OS: Abbreviation of Optical Stabilization, together with Image Stabilization function. This code will be found in the Sigma lens.
VC: Abbreviation of Vibration Compensation, the same function with Image Stabilization. This code will be found in the Tamron lens.
DX, DT, DC: Code lens optimized for crop sensor cameras. This code will be found in the lens Nikon, Sony or Sigma.
DG: The code that is compatible lenses for camera crop and full frame sensors. This code will be found in the Sigma lens.
L -> short for "Luxury", commonly spoofed into "Disallow". The lens is a Canon L-series lenses are at the top. Made with optical-optical quality choice, also has a good build quality and sturdiness. Lens series is characterized by a red bracelet in front of the neck of the lens. L stands for luxury aka high quality lens that luxury.
DO -> short for "diffractive Optics". This series lenses when compared with other lens that has a focal length and maximum aperture of the same usually have a smaller form factor and lighter weight. Canon also to claim this DO series lenses have a better ability to cope with chromatic aberration. This lens is marked with a green bracelet at the front of the lens neck. Until now, the new Canon produces two kinds of diffractive optics lens with this.
EF -> Canon lens mount since 1987, previously named FD mount. Additional -S behind is short for Short Back Focus. Lenses with this series has a 'stern' more sticking so could not get into the body fullframe. The design is designed for non-fullframe body (APS-C) that has a smaller image circle than normal EF series lenses. If forced mounted on the body fullframe (both aided by the extension tube or other means), it will produce images with severe vignetting due to the range of the image circle is not to cover the entire frame.
IS -> stands for "Image Stabilizer". Vibration dampers on lens technology that enables the lens to stabilize the hand vibration that can cause shaking photo. Ability IS usually measured with a stop rating, where the higher the number the rating, the better the ability of the IS lens in stabilizing the vibration.
USM -> stands for "Ultra-Sonic Motor", can be spoofed into "To All the Moment". AF lens with this bike usually has faster autofocus capability and silent so as to capture the moment with better and more accurate.
EF-S: the type of vatting / pangkon / bajonet / mounting

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