The causes of unemployment are generally as follows:
(i) Fragmentation and Disintegration of land:-
In an agricultural country like Pakistan, cultivable land, according to its land laws, is held in tenures and is controlled by a minority (under Zamindari). On account of these small holdings, modern method of agriculture cannot be successfully carried out. The Government has abolished Zamindari system.
(ii)Growth of population and introduction of Machinery and large scale production:-
The development of towns, cities and industrial centre’s where many labor-swing devices are introduced for quicker mass production resulted in throwing many manual workers out of employment.
(iii)Effect on Agricultural population of Climate, Weather and seasonal Change:-
In certain seasons, for want of ancillary occupation to keep them engaged in other fields of activity, agriculturists have to remain idle. In addition to this majority of adult population has no means to eke out its existence.
Education is Government’s responsibility. Pakistani graduate is fit only to be clerk and nothing more. He lacks initiative, resourcefulness and capacity. Even to be a clerk after studying for so many years in academic institution, a youth has to pass a competitive examination. The system of education is defective and calls for hold and wholesale overhaul.
(v)Inordinate birth Rate:-
Every census reveals an increase of million people in Pakistan and the more the mouths the country has to feed; the poorer would become the standard of living.
(vi)Unbalanced Nature of Economy:-
The Government should ensure that at no times should the number of jobs be fewer than the number of unemployed persons. Similarly the demand and supply of labour should also be properly regulated. Fractional unemployment will, however, have to be accepted during the period of adjustment.
Unemployment arises from a variety of causes. Some are recurring. It is a serious problem to eliminate all causes of unemployment. There are occasional causes of unemployment when there is a marked diminution in the quality of any raw product. We may call this cause ‘bad harvest’. Similar, but more serious is the effect of changes in industry due to the introduction of machinery which does more work and requires fewer hands. Post war economic depression also increased unemployment.
Written By Aafia Hira