# ELECTRICITY IN ACTION

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Pleased to meet you, Friends today i am telling you about the electricity. Electricity plays important parts in our lives. it is hard to have and idea of our lives without electricity. Electricity and magnetic attraction were well certain  for hundreds of year but Hans Christian Oersted a Danish Scientist in 1820 discovered a connection between them. He made observation that current moving liquid through a twisted cord ring of wire production a magnetic field around it. In this way he proved that a magnetic keep records can be produced by an electric current. In 1831, a UK man of science Michale Faraday discovered that the revers of this surprising event is also possible. He made observations that when a circle of wire was moved quickly between the two poles of a magnet an electric current was produced in it. This discovery changed this earth into a quality of producing of uncommon effect earth.

Hans Christian Oersted

Today  I am telling you the ways to produce electricity from old and wise gases and some other sources of energy, the working of a power station and the problems involved in producing electricity.

Compass needle near a wire, showing the effect discovered by oersted

# How Electricity is produced?

No Fans, computers, refrigerators and other electrics appliances in our homes can be run without electricity. Electricity can be produced from many different sources by different methods. For, example, dry unit and batteries produce electricity by chemical reactions of compounds.

Micro meter

Electricity can also be produced by some mechanical ways. Just as we can make magnets from electricity, we can also use magnets to make electricity. we can also use magnets to make electricity. we have knowledge of that if a magnet is moved quickly through a twisted cord ring of copper wire, electrons move in the wire and thus electricity is produced. Electricity can also be produced by rotating a twisted cord ring between, the opposite poles of a magnet. The mechanical system to produce electricity in this way is Telephoned electric generator or dynamo. Relative motion between a twisted cord ring  and magnet, electric current starts to flow through the coil which can be connected to an external circuit. Current produced by electric generators is not unidirectional. Its direction changes many times after an equal space between of time. such a current is telephoned alternating current (A.C). For the production of electricity of higher voltage, a generator should have:

i.  Stronger magnets
ii. More turns in its coil
iii. Quick relative motion between the magnet and coil

working of generator

# Bicycle Dynamo - a Small Generator:

Your bicycle may have a dynamo to light up its light. The dynamo is a small portable generator which produces electricity from the energy of your body when you pedal.

The working of this small generator is the same as that of a big generator. In a dynamo the twisted cord ring is held stationary. while the magnet makes goes around rotates with the rotating wheel of the bicycle.

Working of a generator

# Power Plant Generators:

The Development of a country highly depends on the able to use of the power useable things. we need large amount of Electricity for our business and commercial use. For these purposes, Electricity is mostly generated in places called power stations.

Turbine

In a power plant generator, the twisted rings are kept stationary while magnet is turned inside the twisted code ring The stationary coil is called stator while the moving magnet is called rotor the running water or fuels like, coal, oil or gas are used to run generators for producing electricity, In coal - fired electricity generation, the burning coal heats water in a boiler, producing steam pushes the blades of a turbine fixed at the lower end of the rotor shaft. As the rotor turns inside the stator, electric power is produced.

Generation of coal -fired electricity

Hydro power generation is very money related conditions of friendly. In a hydro power station, water falls down from a high reservoir ( lake ) through the tunnels.

Hydro power generation

. The falling water turns the blades of a turbine to the lower end of the rotor. The rotating shaft turns the rotor, which produced electricity in the stator. The electricity is transmitted in the far parts of the country by power transmission system.

# Energy Sources to Generate Electricity:

Electricity is not only produced by mechanical generators but there are some other ways that generate electricity. Energy of coal, gas or oil and kinetic energy of water is being used throughout the earth for this purpose. electricity is becoming unaffordable for people because the prices of gas,oil and coal are very high. Men of Science are now looking for the most cheaper ways to generate electricity.  Some other source used most in the modern technology are Solar, Nuclear, Wind Energy to generate Electricity.

# Solar Energy:

Solar panels

solar energy is used through solar panels. solar panels are inter-connected with brighter sunlight. During daytime, this energy can be used directly to run appliances. This electricity can also be stored in batteries for the use during night. Solar electricity is conditions friendly. The trend to generate electricity by solar panles is increasing day by day in pakistan due to the increase in prices of traditional thermal electricity.

# Wind Energy:

Wind power

The kinetic energy of wind in coastal areas is used to turn huge blades mounted on high poles. The turning blades run the generator to produce electricity.

# Nuclear energy:

Nuclear power plant

When nuclei of heavy elements are broken by a special process called 'Fission' a large amount of heat energy is released. This heat is used to make steam that runs the electric generator.

# Problem Involved in Generating Electricity:

1.   Hydroelectric power is the traditional methods of production of electricity. it is the cheapest way of getting electricity, some problems are there in this method. The people living in these areas where the dams are to be Constructed, are shifted to some other places. In winter, its capacity decreases due to shortage of water.

2.    Electricity production by using thermal energy involves burning of fossil fuels (oil, gas, coal). These are non -renewable energy sources. That is why the existing reserves of fossil fuels are running short day by day and their prices are shooting up. Fossil fuels release smoke and other harmful gases in atmosphere.

3.   Many advanced countries use nuclear energy for production of electricity. Although    it is not very expensive but sometimes it becomes very risky. The danger of harmful radiation leakage is always there.

4.   Solar power is becoming very popular these days. Solar energy is renewable source of energy and is available to everyone free of cost. Production of electricity by using solar energy is safe and causes no pollution, but still has certain problems. The major problem is the high initial cost of solar panels and storage batteries.

5.   Wind energy is also a renewable source of energy. It does not produce pollution. The initial cost is very high.Wind farms cover, large, areas of   expensive land and are very noisy.

Radio, Television, Computer, amplifiers, hi-fi sound system and Mobile Phone  are used in our home. They use electricity to perform their functions such as to process input data and to obtain, alter, transmit or store information

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