There are different classes of diseases, but some of most common diseases are discussed below:
Infectious diseases are caused by germs, which multiply in the body of organism and as a result produce poisons. These diseases may spread by direct contact like hand shaking, sneezing and coughing etc. These diseases are termed as contagious diseases e.g. small pox, cough, influenza, AIDS and hepatitis etc. There are other diseases, which are spread by indirect transmission like food, dust, water etc.
These diseases are developed due to the social setup of the people. Some people smoke, as they are addict or consider it as a fashion. Stress and anxiety of modern life setup causes heart diseases, blood pressure and other emotional diseases.
Some people develop irregular eating habits, dieting, over eating and not eating balanced diet. These factors developed diseases like ulcer, gas trouble, heart attack, blood pressure and low resistance. People want to relieve stress with alcohols and sleeping –pills or by taking drugs like marijuana and heroin etc.
most of the busy societies lack healthy habits like daily walk and exercise etc.
The major health problems of man are related to nutritional deficiencies. About 1/5 of the world’s population is affected due to nutritional deficiencies in one way or the other. Some of the common disorders due to nutritional deficiency are:
(1) Protein deficiency causes kwashiorkor
(2) Calcium deficiency causes rickets
(3) Iron deficiency causes anemia
(4) Iodine deficiency causes goiter
(5) Vitamins are organic compounds. They are required in small amount but their deficiency can lead to serious abnormalities e.g. deficiency of Vitamin ‘A’ causes night blindness and dry skin. Deficiency of vitamin ‘B’ can cause beri-beri, cracked lips, nervous disorders and malformation of R.B.C. Deficiency of vitamin ‘C’ causes scurvy. Deficiency of vitamin ‘D’ causes rickets.
As we know that aging leads to retrogressive changes in the body, which lead to degeneration and weakness of body. These changes decrease the ability of the body to show resistance against diseases and stress. These negative changes in the body are together called aging.
Degenerative diseases are atherosclerosis and hypertension etc. atherosclerosis is the hardening of the arteries in which fatty deposits particularly cholesterol accumulates within and beneath the arteries.
Hypertension (high blood pressure) can lead to cardiac failure, further hardening of arteries, possible rupture of the blood vessels especially in the brain and kidney.
Prevention and Control of Diseases:
There are some methods employed to prevent and control diseases. They are given below:
- Vector control.
- Healthy habits.
- Nutrient deficiency control programs.
- Creating awareness in people through media.
- Health care.
- Minimizing pollution
- Improving living standards.
- Population control.
- Proper information to health authorities for any epidemic.
- Isolation and segregation of the person suffering from infectious diseases.
Written By: Syed Faiz Mujtaba