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In the course of initial development of the web, there existed a whole lot of webservers run by Tim Berners-Lee and loaded on the webserver called CERN. An earlier print of the list in 1992 still exists, nevertheless, with the increasing number of webservers getting online, the principal list couldn’t be maintained any further. Latest servers were publicized with the title "What's New!" on NCSA website.

Initially the tool used for web-search was “Archie”, a term that meant "archive" without there being English letter "v" in it. Three computer science students, Bill Heelan, Alan Emtage, and J. Peter Deutsch Archie developed Archie in 1990 at McGill University, Montreal. The application retrieved all files’ directory listings found on unknown FTP public sites which produced a database of file names that could be searched on net. Nevertheless, in view of the amount of data being small, indexing of these file names was not done by Archie and it could be navigated through at convenience.

In 1991, the introduction of Gopher by Mark McCahill of University of Minnesota ushered into a new search engine coupling, viz. Jughead and Veronica. They would search the titles and file names saved in Gopher catalogues as did Archie. Across the whole Gopher indexing, the keyword hunt of a number of Gopher menu titles was provided by Veronica. On the other hand Jughead would be employed as a means for accessing menu information from a particular Gopher server. Interestingly enough, "Veronica" and "Jughead" are the cast of the series, Archie comic book, thus referencing their predecessor "Archie".

Although an array of specialized cataloging was being undertaken at hand during the year 1993, yet not a single search engine was meant for internet. A series of Perl scripts were written by Oscar Nierstrasz of University of Geneva which reflected those pages at regular intervals and reproduced them in the form of a typical layout which carved the foundation for W3 Catalog, the internet's first pioneering search engine that was made public near the end of the year 1993.

Matthew Gray, by June 1993, developed the Perl-based World Wide Web Wanderer, and got it produce ''Wandex', an instance of index. The Wanderer was meant to determine the volume of the web that it was able to execute by the end of 1995. Aliweb, the 2nd search engine was introduced in Nov. 1993. It did not employ a web robot rather it relied on notifications from website administrators regarding the presence at all sites of a typical index file in a given format.


Jonathon Fletcher created Jump Station in December 1993 to be used a web robot to retrieve web pages and to prepare their index and got a web form as an interface to execute the related query program. This was, therefore, the very initially discovered www tool collectively featuring indexing, crawling, and searching. Owing to small media resource availability it exercised, the indexing and searching process were restricted to titles and headings contained by net pages that the crawler captured.


By the year 1994, WebCrawler, an earlier version of "all text" crawler-based search engines was developed. Contrary to its prototypes, this enabled users to look for any word in any webpage that has been set as the standard search engine since the date. It was also the first one widely known by the public. The year 1994 brought forward another breakthroughLycos; it got inception as a global commercial success.



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Azan Ahmed

Blogger FilmAnnex

About the author


Professional Content writer since 2007, have worked online with an England based company of content reproduction and proof reading, Islamabad. Teaching MA English, IELTS and Spoken English since 2007. 2007: Did MA English with high first div (Linguistics and Literature) from (anglophone) National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad. 2005: Appeared…

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