Printers are one of the most used peripherals on computers and are commonly used to print text, images, and photos. There are various types of printers available in the current market. Some of them are All-in-one (AIO) printer, Dot Matrix printer, Inkjet printer, Laser printer, Multifunction printer (MFP),Thermal printer and LED printer. Toner is a powder applied in laser printers and photocopiers to clearly get the printed text and images on the paper. The first toner formation was composed of carbon powder, iron oxide, and sugar mixes. After a while, to maintain an improved quality of the printout, the carbon was melt-mixed with a polymer. All formation of Toner particles are melted by the heat of the fuser, and bind to the paper. In earlier machines, low-cost carbon toner was poured from a bottle into a reservoir found in the machine. Recently, the machines feed directly from a sealed laser toner cartridge. The latest laser toner cartridges applied for color copiers and printers are designed in cyan, magenta, yellow and black (CMYK).Inks are essential printing products that must be there for the successful output of the desired stuff. Inks can either be formed in liquid or thermal forms so that the type of cartridges used affects the classification of the ink industry.
The international trade commission has introduced the General exclusion order (GEO) which prohibits infringing cartridges from entering the U.S. After the application of the GEO, it is forbidden to import or sell any infringing items throughout the United States. When we come to the printing, ink and tonner industry, similar result is seen. GEO bans infringing ink cartridges, tonners and printers, as well as a Cease and Desist Order that bars the named parties from selling infringing cartridges. Due to the application of GEO, the import and selling rate of low quality items become low. Because of this the quantity and price rate of qualified printing, ink and tonner products rise rapidly.
The impact of international trade commission (ITC) through GEO is applied in HP Company, the world’s pioneer printing and related products producer. Starting from NOV 1st 2012,HP requires ID authorization to make sure that all the manufactured printers, inks and tonners follow the principal design standards of ITC and to ban any unauthorized printing products sold by the brand name HP. To participate in the ID authorization program, telesales & administration participants must be employed by an Authorized distributor and be authorized to sell qualifying products included in the program. The distributor must also specifically agree to participate in the program and provide needed information to facilitate claim processing and tax reporting. All resellers registered by distributors must submit their tax ID to participate in this program. The tax ID will be used as the unique identifier key to assign WinPoints to each company.