The root shows four different zones
1. Root cap 2. Region of meristematic activity
3. Region of elongation 4. Region of maturation
1. Root cap: The root is covered at the apex by a thimble-like structure called the root cap. It protects the tender apex of the root as it makes its way through the soil.
2. Region of meristematic activity: A few millimeters above the root cap are the region of meristematic activity. The cells of this region are very small, thin-walled and with dense protoplasm. They divide repeatedly.
3. Region of elongation: The cells proximal to the region of meristematic activity undergo rapid elongation and enlargement and are responsible for the growth of the root in length. This region is called the region of elongation. The cells of the elongation zone gradually differentiate and mature. Hence, this zone, proximal to region of elongation, is called the region of maturation.
4. Region of maturation: From this region some of the epidermal cells form very fine and delicate, thread-like structures called root hairs. These root hairs absorb water and minerals from the soil.