The use of sensory aids the teaching of mathematics is of recent origin.
Infact, all teaching has always involved the communication of ideas through
the medium of speech, or visual by the use of written or printed material.
Text books, writing materials, geometrical instruments and the chalk board
(all these are sensory aids) have long been regarded as indispensable
equipment for mathematics classes. For many years’ resourceful teachers
have use models, instruments, drawing and other devices to interest and
facilitate learning. But for a long time the potential values of these
supplementary devices were fully realized only by exceptional teachers.
Mathematics is an essentially a subject, where doing is more prominent than
reading. That is why a certain amount of equipment is indispensable in order
to make even a start in this subject. Moreover, it is held by a vast majority of
people that mathematics is a dry and difficult subject, full of abstract things.
The result is that students take very little interest in it. To create the
necessary interest is a constant problem for the teacher. This subject
demands the use of aids at every step.
Equipment for mathematical instructions falls into two categories;
(1)That which the students need in order to pursue his owns individual study
and (2) that which can be used in common and has to be provided by the
school in the mathematics laboratory.
The former category includes such obvious necessities as test book, writing
equipment, simple drawing and measuring instruments in the form of a
geometry box, and in some cases special equipment such as the slide rule.
These are an essential part of good teaching. They have many advantages as
•Audio video devices enhance the interest of students, especially
students of quite young age. As children take interest in colors and
different devices, instruments, it’s quite easy to teach them. As well as
teen agers also take interest in pictures etc. They also want to do their work by themselves.
So audio video teaching is much effective than
•Good audio visual aids can clarify points, present information,
illustrate arguments and processes, and do a hundred useful things in a
•Make a lesson easy and interesting, help in remembering/information
•Save teacher’s time.
Some aids are given below.
This is the first and foremost of all the items of mathematical equipment. It
must be there even if any thing else is not there. This is the minimum
equipment. But sometime it need not even be included in the list of special
equipment, as it is a taken for granted part of every classroom. Chalkboard may verily be called the second tongue of the mathematics teacher.
Charts can cover a vast range of mathematical topics, such as coins, weights
and measures: prices of different kinds of articles; school and class pass
percentage; different kinds of geometrical figures and their qualities;
different kinds of angles, triangles, polygons, quadrilaterals: different types
of bank drafts or cheques; arithmetical terminology such as fraction,
average, area, profit and loss, ratio etc
Various filmstrips can be used to give a new color and attraction to different
ideas of mathematics. The resourceful teacher can obtain them from the
market. The advantages lie in the fact that they don’t burden the mind, can be shown in off hours, and teach the subjects in an effective manner. The mathematics teacher should seek the cooperation of the science teacher in using these aids.
Broadcasting stations can also help, if the school possesses a radio set and
the stations broadcast programmes of mathematical interest .these broadcast
can relate important incidents form the lives of great mathematicians .some
take by expert can be arranged on the place of mathematics in daily life, and
in industry and trades. The history of the development of mathematics can
also be a topic, and special emphasis can also be ladino the discoveries made
by mathematicians. Similarly news pertaining to market rates, temerpature
and rainfall, broadcast by radio stations can serve as source of collection of
Home made equipment:
Some items can be made by the students and teachers. These pieces of
equipment may not be very precise and accurate but have two notable
advantages over those that are produced commercially. First student always
take pride in the equipment made by them with the result that their interest
in using such equipment is increased. Secondly, they are more likely to
understand clearly fundamental principles upon which mathematical
instruments are based. This second advantage is more important that the
Among the instruments and items of equipment which can be made by
students and teachers may be maintain the following.
· Beads, balls sticks, probbles, number-picture cards.
· Almost all the charts.
· Portraits of great mathematicians.
· Almost all the possible models.
· Graphs, budgets etc
· Stencils for geometric figures.
· Bulletin boards and display cases.
· Black board instruments such as rulers, protectors, compasses etc.
udio-visual aid is the best tool for making teaching effective and the best dissemination of knowledge. Audio –visual material can be included tape recorder, radio, movie, projector method etc. If we use the audio-visual material for elementary education as curriculum, the objectives would be followings. Augmented Instruction. This is one of the important objectives of using audio visual material, using the application of slides and films in the classroom. Here teachers can use the audio visual aids to reinforce their teaching in the context of a lecture or activities based lesson. Thereafter, teachers can demonstrate any motivational movie according the needs of situation and relevant topic. Independent Learning
In the classroom, films, audio tapes and video tapes can be used instead of personal student teacher contacts. This forms of instruction can be used in continuing government schools where the teachers are not available adequate. Typically, informative and motivational films on selected topics and video tapes transmitted via various TV networks are typical of these types of material.
Self-assessment, Evaluation and Role playing
At the elementary school, the introduction of video tape recording equipment which does not require elaborates production facilitates stimulating the use of television for the self-assessment of children. Tape recorders can be replayed for the purpose of self-analysis by the children or peers analysis with their classmates.
Therefore, “small group is an integral part of the Problem Based Learning approach, used consciously and conscientiously to achieve the learning outcomes”.
Enhance capacities for learning
It is argued that purposefully designed and successful small group learning facilitates learning through the development of audio-visual material that supports and promotes both cognitive and meta-cognitive development. Teachers may show some movie, cartoon and slow-motion animation for the use of teaching. Having finished, teacher can instruct children to sit in small group and tell what they saw. The ‘structures’ in small group can be applied as problem based learning, along with the tutorial process and the use of scenarios, help the students to learn how to learn in groups and learn how to anticipate, prevent, cope and deal with the difficulties that they will experience working in this way.
Manner of Using Audio and Visual Aids
Learning of children can be influences effectively by the audio-visual aid. Teachers can use television or projector method to explain the scientific phenomenon. It will take less time in describing the minute details of the things comparatively traditional method. Through television children can watch the big image of the object such as solar eclipse, use of water cycle , vermi composting, vermiculture , stories , drama, and composting in elementary education text book etc..
Audio visual will very useful and meaningful for those students belonging to literature background. All the genre of literature (novel, drama, tragedy, comedy etc.) can be shown easily through this device. Students will learn to understand it very soon without reading. Reading may seem little boredom but audio visual aid will maintain and hold the interest of students.
The impact of television would be hundred times more than book.Nature of learning
Audio visual aid will serve effective method in disseminative knowledge even in overcrowded classroom. Without this technical device, poorly teacher prepared cannot hold the class properly. If teachers use the help of audio visual in class such as projector, which would definitely stimulate imagination and catch the attention of students. Teachers often give instruction heavily loaded abstract verbalisms which seem meaningless sometime. So in case, teaching should be in simple and lucid manner. Hence, use of audio visual aid in classroom, will lead towards learning with understanding, learning by watching and learning as fun not as burden. Teachers should know which things of it are relevant and which are irrelevant, specially which how audio visual aid may contribute to an understanding of the lesson being taught. Therefore, it is essential for any teacher who wants to be successful teacher, must plan carefully and worked out in advance.Benefit of Audio Usual Aid Teacher may demonstrate in many types of slide and movie in the classroom. It will enrich their understanding and vocabulary about the uses of language. Through recording, radio and tape, teacher can tell telecast many interesting and informative news, history and story. These will build a creative environment in elementary class children. Apart from that “an understanding of the arts-painting, sculpture, the dance, handcrafts-can readily be taught by means of television. And both radio and television are valuable media for teaching musical forms”.
There is no doubt that technical device have greater impact and dynamic informative system. No other than this, can excel in providing knowledge. education, informative, knowledgeable, and motivation movie may be the milestone in imparting the quality education in lowers classes. Audio is a very effective medium of communication, which catch the heart and mind of people. audio visual aid may also lead towards wrong path way if it is misused. If children are shown excess movie, it could also bring serious repercussion in the life children. Therefore, teacher should not totally dependent upon audio visual aid. They should also encourage and promote self learning and textual culture.
It is needless to say that in certain area of schools at elementary level, the use of audio-visual materials is essential to the dissemination of the information and the skills or technique which is being taught the children. When audio- visual material are compulsory for the teaching –learning process, then it is obvious that the teacher could be replaced for these schools by a well-trained projection , functioning equipment and well-prepared self-explanatic material, such as audio visual software materials. When such areas of curricula can be identified in advance, it is clear that a great saving of time and talent of the teacher can utilized in another creation of innovative work.
It is important to note that utilization of audio-visual aid is very much dependent upon the ability of the teachers to be aware of their ability and have access to them.
Due to use of audio visual aid in the classroom, many teachers feel fear making embarrassment errors. They do not feel comfortable. Using of audio visual aids decreases teacher’s autonomy in the classroom. They find themselves as motor which is run by remote control. It also creates frustration and panic fear of committing more mistakes. They do not find natural environment where they deliver their knowledge. This technical device leads disappointed performance. “ Electronic equipment may frighten teachers with its apparent complexity. At least part of this fear comes from the expectation that something may go wrong during the lesson causing the instructor the embarrassment of appearing inept, unable to control the teaching situation’’(R. Murray Thomas, Chapt. 4,p.118)
Regarding facilities, equipment and capabilities required for extend use of audio-visual materials in schools will differ depending upon a wide variety of factors like space, funding and electricity. The biggest factor is to note that it is not problem of hardware or software but the educational objectives of the teachers and the motivational issues of the children. Audio-visual aid is necessary to be typically and regionally in order to assist in gaining optimum learning. It is somewhat hard to achieve such learning if there is only one centre it is because of schools locations, educational objectives differ from place to place. Purpose of learning
It is matter of fact that still teacher have old notion regarding use of audio visual instruction as only entertainment. They do not proper use of these modern technologies and its implication. They are out of sympathy with modern educational philosophy and psychology, both of which stress the vital part interest plays in learning. For those teachers, any electronic devices are made to reduce learning difficulties and make it more “soft pedagogy” entertainment and not education. But it’s real use and purposes something different. Audio visual aid not designed to amuse the pupil but to increase his interest in and their comprehension of the topic being studied by presenting several different slants on it especially through his most used senses-sight and hearing.”
Audio visual materials have always been used for instruction in hope of reducing the heavy teaching loads that have been increasing stress for children . it is seen that audio visual materials has been teacher oriented mechanism. It is not good thing. In such atmosphere, teacher either projects the visuals or plays the audio from a central position at his/her desk. After that, students are supposed to look or listen to the programme presented. It should not be like that rather teacher should encourage among students for healthy and fruitful discussion in the classroom. For growth of learning, interaction is dire of between students and teachers.
As for as specific subject is concerned in schools’ curriculum, in practical there is no separate subject included for audio visual By and large, audio visual aid is part of teaching method which is designed to assist in the classroom along with presentation of material (concept, knowledge, and ideas). Audio visual aid is basically admired for best in the literature, mathematics, science, shopwork and other field, both as curricular and extracurricular. In these fields, with the help of technical device, children can have understanding and replicate it. Age of students.
Audio visual aid may be used by after 6th old age. Children can play play games and learn computer, typing functions. Children can learn at early age, faster than later period of their life. Children find computer as toy and like to play with it. Use of electronic device, can make learning fun and easy for children under 6-14 old age. Socio-cultural context of learners.
It is an important factor which impinges upon overall personality. It is very necessary for the use of electronic devices such as, tape recorder, television, computer, and radio, children‘s family must be educated and sensitive towards implication of these operation. After that, it is possible to make best use of these electronic devices in purposeful and meaningful way. Otherwise, it may bring complex repercussion for children. Children belonging to WSS (weaker section of society) may not be able to facilitate these things at home and send their children in decent school where these modern technologies are equipped.
In this way, we understood that audio-visual aid is the best tool for making teaching effective and the best dissemination of knowledge. Audio –visual material can be included tape recorder, radio, movie, projector method etc. Not to say that it has also some limitation that all schools cannot afford this modern technological devices because it is difficult to adopt this approach in government schools where still no adequate teachers, funding and proper infrastructure of classroom and water,toilet facilities. If this audio visual material is provided to govt. school, it will be a only show piece because teachers are also not very acquainted with it. Audio-visual material can be afforded by elite schools and also its use can be realized truly.