What is Fiber Optic:
Optical fiber is a thin strand of highly transparent glass or plastic that guide light. It is used as medium for carrying information from one point to another in the form of light. A basic fiber link consists of a transmitting device which generate the light signal, and optical fiber cable which carries light, and receiver which accept the light signal being transmitted, the fiber itself is passive and does not contain any active properties.
Basic Construction of Optical Fibre:
Core: it is the center of the fibre(cable) through which the light is transmitted.
Cladding: it is the outside layer of the fibre(cable) that traps the light in the core and guides it along and even through curves.
Buffer coating or primary coating: A hard plastic coating on the outside of the fibre that protects the glass from mositure or physical damage.
Fibre optic cable functions as a “light guide,” guiding the light introduced at one end of the cable through to the other end. The core and cladding are manufactured together as a single piece of silica glass. The core region’s refractive index(or optical density) is greater than the cladding layer. The glass does not have a hole in the core,this glass is completely solid all through. The light is “guided” down through the core. The cladding traps the light in core using an optical technique called “total internal reflection”. The third part of an optical fibre is the outer protective coating called the “primary buffer coating”. coating is usually an ultraviolet(UV) light-cured acrylate applied during the manufacturing process to provide physical and environmental protection for the fibre. During the installation of optical fiber cable system,this coating is removed from the cladding to allow proper termination to an optical transmission system.