History is a very important part of our life, we all have paste, we all have some family backgrounds, what is the background of our family’s background, it is called history.
History tells people, how human society developed and nation which do not learn from their history, could not progress in life.
A well manage nation can be a well civilized nation.
An advanced society, in a specific area is called civilization. Civilization means a society which is fully developed and which has very high moral and spirituals values, and that society is on the path of material, scientifical and technological advancement.
The Indus valley means that the area which is irrigated by the river-Indus and its tributary rivers. As the civilization developed in this area, therefore it was called Indus valley civilization. About five thousand years ago (3000BC to 2500BC) a civilized nation was settled in this valley. This civilization remained active for about one thousand years. They had a high standard of living , but due to unknown reasons, this civilization collapsed.
In 1922(A.D), archaeological experts , under the supervision of Sir john Marshal excavated the ruins of two sites these sites were Mohenjo-Daro(District Larkana) and Harappa(district Sahiwal).
Archaeological experts observed that at these places, a civilized nation was settled. After proper excavation, it was confirmed that there were important political, commercial, and administrative sites. One at Harappa and another at Mohenjo-Daro.
These sites are at a distance of 720 KM from each other. Even then things founded from these places are very similar to each other. Experts estimated from their antiquity that these were five thousand years old. These ruins tell us the story of those people who were settled there in those cities at old times. These people established the first-ever culture and civilization of Indo-Pakistan.
The above map of Indo-Pakistan show places where the ruins of Indus valley civilization are found. These places include Mohenjo-Daro (Sindh), Harappa (Punjab), Mehrgarh (Baluchistan) and Rehman Dheri(Khyber Pakhtunkhwa). Among all the sites of Indus valley civilization Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa have great Importance.
The Indus valley civilization is the oldest and most important civilization of south Asia. This civilization is a contemporary of the Bronze civilization of Egypt and Iraq.
According to Archaeological experts, this civilization was spread over a vast area. This represents a scene of the Bronze Age. Aryans came from central Asia in 1500 BC and attacked Indus valley after which the Aryans civilization nourished in the Indus valley.
1 Stone age: the oldest civilization when tools and weapons were made from stones.
This period was between 2 ½ million to 2500 BC.
2 Bronze-Age: this is a time when man began making tools and weapons from metals.
This periods is started from 3500 BC and end on 1500 BC.
3 Iron-age: after 1500 BC, Iron was used to make tools and weapons, in south west Asia.
Contacts with contemporary civilization
During the presence of Indus valley civilization other civilization was present different parts of the world. One thing was common among them all these flourished around river-banks. Such as Egyptian- civilization developed near river Nile, Mesopotamian civilization (present day Iraq) between river Tigris and Euphrates.
There were contacts through land and sea routes between these civilizations. Some evidence also indicates trade relation among them. A study of History of that period Indicates that land routes present day Pakistan, Iran, Iraq, Syria and Egypt were used. While for sea route, the Arabian Sea, Persian Gulf and red Sea in Indian Ocean were used.
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