By applying the method of evaporation through the membrane, the scientists Egypt has created a simple, inexpensive, non-electric for the extraction of drinking water from sea water in minutes, promises to be generally applicable widely in many water-scarce areas of the world.
Currently, the removal of salt from sea water seems to be the only way to provide water to the poor countries, developing countries in particular in Egypt and the Middle East. To do that, one must build a huge refinery, underwent many different filter stages, requires more expensive equipment and consuming electricity.
On the other hand, these plants emit large amounts of salt and pollutants back to the ocean, affecting the environment. Therefore, the researchers sought to cheaper, cleaner and less energy to separate water from sea water.
And in the latest changes, the group of scientists Naim Mona Mahmoud Elewa, Ahmed El-Shafei and Abeer Moneer at the University of Alexandria, Egypt announced it had developed a new material, help filter fresh water from sea water an easy, simple and can be applied in most countries in the world without taking power.
Techniques they used to separate liquids and solids in seawater called pervaporation (PV - atmospheric chemical leaching, evaporation osmosis membrane, which is a combination of osmosis and evaporation, is used to separate liquid mixture by partial evaporation through the membrane selectively nonporous). This is a simple process with two steps: First water will be filtered by a ceramic or polymer membrane. Then the water will continue to be as volatile as the difference between the two first pressure (source at the air pressure, the power is usually vacuum) and condenses to the freshwater.
This approach is said to be faster, cleaner and more energy efficient than a conventional filter because it does not need to use electricity to generate heat as the water evaporates. In fact, the technique is not new PV, but before, the membrane is used very expensive and complex manufacturing.
This time, the scientists were able to break that creates a new layer can absorb salt and more integrated cellulose acetate powder to enhance the effectiveness of transpiration through the membrane. Cellulose acetate powder in the form of a filament, is derived from wood which according to researchers is inexpensive, easy to find in many places.
This layer will quickly desalinate seawater with high salinity and even can filter sea water heavily polluted. Besides, if used on a large scale, it can filter out contaminants and salt crystals to minimize environmental pollution.
Currently the researchers have not yet announced plans to commercialize this product, but if possible, it will be a promising method for developing country where electricity and water are still the source extremely scarce materials.