Journalists are seen increasingly as either asset or vulnerability. The conflict in Bosnia & Herzegovina was one of first to show the power of reports from the battlefield particularly as it delivered undeniable evidence. The rapid evolution of the Internet and social media have only further this trend/perception most recently in Syria. Reporters not only are caught in cross-fire but become targets. The death/killing of 5 citizen-journalists in Syria as well as professional reporters (as Marie Colvin) have prompted UNESCO to already call for an investigation. However, the recent upsurge in targeting of journalists extends to those reporting on organized crime to political abuse and it may take many forms from harassment and false prosecution to detention and torture. Now, 2 independent United Nations human rights experts are urging greater protection for media professionals, citing the unacceptably high number of attacks against those disseminating news, including arbitrary arrests, torture and killings, to sexual violence against female journalists. Also See our Blog for Film -"Syrian Journalist Targeted".
“Attacks against journalists are attacks against democracy,” stressed the Special Rapporteur on freedom of opinion and expression, Frank La Rue, and the Special Rapporteur on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions, Christof Heyns. Presenting their respective reports to the UN Human Rights Council in Geneva, the experts urged governments, the international community, as well as journalists and media organizations, to act decisively to protect the lives of journalists and media freedom. Mr. La Rue cited in particular “the continuing repression of journalists and media freedom worldwide, aimed at suppressing information deemed ‘inconvenient,’ and increasing restrictions placed on journalists who disseminate information through the Internet. States continue to utilize criminal laws on defamation, national security and counterterrorism to suppress dissent and criticism, including on Government policies, human rights violations and allegations of corruption. ‘Judicial harassment’ generates a climate of fear and encourages self-censorship.”
Mr. Heyns underscored that impunity is “a major, if not the main, cause” of the high number of journalists killed every year. “The countries where the highest numbers of journalists are killed are also, almost without exception, those with the highest levels of impunity. It is hard to imagine a world without journalists. Without their work, humanity would be reduced to silence, and yet a large number are killed every year with almost total impunity.” According to Mr. Heyns: journalists are among the persons who receive the most death threats.
The two experts put forward specific recommendations in their reports dealing with material, legal, and policing measures of protection, ranging from public condemnation of attacks against journalists, support for press freedom by senior government officials and greater accountability to fight impunity See our Blog for Film: “Open Season on Journalists” . Taking into view above considerations, should attack upon journalists be specifically singled out, (as we did with gender based crimes during the Rome Statute), with respect to offenses addressed by the International Criminal Court?
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