Production and Marketing Issues of spring Maize in pakistan
To find out the major problems in the area i took a survey in a city of Punjab. i took a sample of 50 farmers.
The average age of respondent was 41.14 years. Overall education level of the farmers in the study area was low. The average education of the farmers was only 7.24 years. Average land holdings in the area were 22.9600 acres. 76.1324 percent area was devoted to maize crop of total land.
In the study area, main four varieties of spring maize were sown, which were P 15 43, 31 P 41, 61 03 and 34 N 43. The variety P 15 43 was grown on 32.59 percent of the total spring maize area.
There were 86 percent farmers of total respondents, which had their own tractor and left population used rented tractor as a power sources. Almost all population of farmers applied irrigation water with tube well.
The area under spring maize was 76.1324 acres. Whereas the average yields of spring maize was 89.18 mounds per acre.
The total cost of production of an acre of spring maize was Rs 78243.84 with the gross margin of Rs 39447.29 per acre. Net return was Rs 2939.68 for maize crop. The benefit cost ratio for investing in an acre of spring maize was 1.03.
The cost of production analysis revealed that producing an acre of spring maize was profitable. The main reason for this profitability was that there was less attack of insect and pests that resulted in higher yield. Less expense on plant protection was a reason for higher returns of spring maize. The weedicide removal cost was also low in the study area. And the soil fertility was also good for this crop.
On the basis of results from the study following suggestions came out that can enhance the maize crop productivity.
- Financial assistance should be given to the spring maize farmers to acquire farms inputs like maize seeds, fertilizer, agro chemicals, and other materials for farming activities.
- Financial institutions such as agricultural and community banks should be established in the study area with simple procedure of securing loans.
- Insecticides and pesticides play strategic role in spring maize production, analysis prove that the farmers were in different about the insecticides and pesticides doses and their proper ratio. So it is suggested that the agriculture officer should make their farmers aware of the proper doses and time of application of each type of insecticides and pesticides for reaping higher benefits.
- Quality of inputs like seed, pesticides and insecticides is very important in spring maize production. So it is suggested that there should be check on input dealer for providing pure seed and good quality of pesticides and insecticides to enhance spring maize production.
- Policy-makers, when making the policy, should take this point into consideration that the prices of the seed of improved variety/hybrids must be kept within the capabilities of the farmers.
- Maize Scientists/Researchers should try to find out some low cost alternative methods of soil fertility and weed control, so that more productive and sustainable technology can be devised.
- There were also marketing issues like commission agents, low prices and delay in payments. So it is suggested that govt. should fix the support price for spring maize. And also have check on market for the benefit of farmers.
- Government has to create marketing board in order to inform spring maize farmers on the variations of spring maize price the market.