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"Matter (It’s States and Properties), Energy and Electricity"

Everything around us is made of matter. A matter is anything that takes up space and has mass. There are three states of matter, Solid, Liquid and Gas.

States of Matter:

Solid, Liquid and Gas are the three states of matter.

Solid:

A solid is a matter that has its own size and shape. Solids take up space and have mass. For Example, a brick has a mass and occupies space. The brick is a solid object. If we place a brick on a scale we can found the weight of brick too which is called a mass of brick.

Image Source: BYJU’S The Learning App

Liquid:

A liquid is one kind of matter that does not have its own shape. Liquids take the shape of their containers. But, they take up space and have mass. Water, honey oil, etc. are examples of the liquid objects. The water occupies space in the pail and it has mass so the water is a liquid matter.

Image Source: Mr. Aguilar's Virtual Classroom

Gas:

Gas is another kind of matter that does not have its own shape. Gases take the shape of their containers, but they take up all the space in containers. A gas also has mass. Smoke, steam, air, etc are the examples of the Gas. The air occupies space in the balloon and it has mass. Therefore, air is also a gas matter.

Image Source: Tutor Circle

Properties of Matter:

Image Source: eLimu

As I have already said that everything around us is made of matter. Anything that takes up space and has mass is called matter. Main states of matter are solid, liquid and gas.

“Mass is the amount of matter in an object.”

We see a variety of material things around us. Different kinds of matter have different properties. A property is something that we can see or feel with our sense organs.

Colour, shape, size, and hardness, etc. are some properties of matter. We can study properties of matter by touching, looking, smelling, tasting and hearing.

"The Properties of Matter"

Video Source: by SmithScience via YouTube

Touching:

Stone, wood, and iron are hard. A foam and cotton ball is soft. How can we determine that a foam and cotton ball is soft and the stone, wood, and iron are hard? We determine it by touching the matter. This is called the touching method to study the property of matter.

Looking:

We can identify the properties of material things by looking at their color, shape, and size. Milk is white but pure water has no color. Leaves are green in color.

Smelling:

Many living and non-living things give off smell. We can recognize things through their smell. The smell of flowers is different. We can identify the bad smell of natural gas from our kitchen. We mostly watch a thing in our home, sometimes my mother smelling the food before serve us, if the smell is good it means the food is okay to eat but if the smell is not good it means we can’t eat now this food. This is a very simple example of smell.

Tasting:

We recognize the taste of eatable materials used in our daily life by tasting. Some are sweet, some are bitter, some are sour and some are salty. Pure water gives no taste.

Hearing:

We often recognize things by their sounds when they produce them. We can recognize birds by their chirping and dogs by their barking. Some working machines produce sounds of different types.

"Energy"

All the moving things on our planet (Earth) need energy. When we do anything we use energy to do it like we use energy to walk. When we move our eyes from one word to the next for reading, we use energy. Anything that can do work and cause change has energy.

For Example:

• An Elephant uses energy to work. It gets energy from its food.
• A bird uses energy to fly in the air. It gets energy from its food.

"SOURCES OF ENERGY"

Video Source: by CBSE Via YouTube

Sources of Energy:

Energy comes from different sources like Sun, Food, Fire, and Electricity.

The Sun:

The Sun is the biggest source of energy. Light and heat both come from the Sun. Plants use energy from the Sun and grow. The energy from the Sun is called solar energy.

Image Source: Biology Notes for IGCSE

Fire:

Fire cooks food. A fire has great energy. It can melt even iron.

Electricity:

Electricity is a form of energy. We use it for lighting, heating and moving machines, etc. In the present day world, it has become the essential part of our activities and lives.

Current:

The flow of electricity through wires is called current. We cannot see current but we can see its effects. Current gives us light. We can see the light. Current gives us heat. We can feel the heat.

Conductors and Insulators:

The material which allows electricity to pass through it is called a conductor. All metals (iron, brass, copper, silver and gold etc.) are conductors.

Image Source: Mr. M , Educator at School Via inSlideShare

The material which does not allow electricity to pass through it is called insulator or non-conductor. Wood, rubber, glass, and paper are insulators or non-conductor goods.

Electricity Circuit:

Electricity current flows from the battery or cell and passes through the wires to the light bulb. From the light bulb, another wire carries the current back to the battery again. These wires and bulb make the path for the flow of current. This path is called an electric circuit. A circuit may be open or closed.

• If there is a gap in the wires, the circuit is open (broken). Electricity does not flow through an open circuit.
• If there is no gap in the wire, The circuit is complete or closed. The bulb glows.

Switch:

The switch is the device which is used to stop of continuing the flowing current. When the switch is in off position, the circuit is open and no current flows. When the switch is in on position, the circuit is closed and current flows.

Image Source: by The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica Via Encyclopedia Britannica

Circuit Braker:

Mains electricity is the current that makes lights and other appliances in our homes work. It comes from power stations. We use circuit breakers to control mains electricity.

Image Source: by Wikipedia

The Cell:

There are special chemicals inside a cell. They work together to make electricity. When the chemicals are used up the cell stops working.

Image Source: Visual Dictonary Online

We use different kinds of cells. All cells store energy. A group of cells connected together is called a battery.

How electricity reaches to our homes?

Electricity is produced in power plants. Power plants use generators to produce it. The electricity is sent to a transformer which helps it move long distances. The transformer sends electricity through high transmission lines and then wires to reach our homes.

I hope you like reading this. And finally, I got 4 stars on my previous blog, the tag issue is sucking me. I hope I can erase this issue also from my blogs.

Regards: InX_GL