INTRODUCTION TO NETWORK (PART-1)
Different computers connected together through some medium form a computer network. Networks brought a concept of sharing information on different computers. In a network, all computers are connected to each other by cables or satellite.
A network can be created by connecting computers on different places through a satellite. In this way, computer in these places can sent and receive information by using the services of a satellite. A network is made up of a group of interconnected computers that let people share information as well as equipments. All these computers are connected to each other by cables, microwaves or satellites. We can share the information without storing it on our hard disks. Information can be exchanged, e.g. documents, e-mails, videos, images, etc. equipments connected to the computer network can also be shared such as a printer and camera.
LOCAL AREA NETWORK (LAN). A Local Area Network (LAN) is one which connects computers within a small area, i.e. a building, an office, a university or even at home. Information can be shared on LAN and it is also used to play multiplayer games. Usually LAN is set up by using cables.
WIDE AREA NETWORK (WAN). A Wide Area Network (WAN) is one which connects computers over a large area, i.e. within a city or over a whole country. Information is transmitted through telephone lines, microwaves or satellites in WAN. Cheques enquiries and ticket bookings are carried out using WAN by banks and many travel agencies respectively.
NETWORK ADMINISTRATOR. A network is managed by a Network Administrator who makes sure that the network operates smoothly. Network Administrator is enabling computers and their services to the clients, is also called Administrator.
VIDEO CONFERENCING BY NETWORK. We can have video conferences over a network. For this purpose we must have a sound card, speakers and microphone installed in our computer to transmit and received sounds. This computer must also have a video camera to transmit live video images. With video conferencing, we can have face-to-face conversations with other people on a network. The people can be in the same office or in another part of the country.
PEER-TO-PEER NETWORK. Users of peer-to-peer networks can access files which have been stored by someone on the network in another computer. Files may include e-mails, documents, videos and images. In a peer-to-peer network up to ten computers can be interconnected and in this way a simple and cheap network can be set up. In a peer-to-peer network, files may be stored at various locations which can make it difficult to organize, protect and create a backup. However, if one of the computers in this type of network breaks down then the rest of the computers are not affected.
OPERATING SYSTEMS. Popular operating systems that offer peer-to-peer networking capabilities are LANtastic, Windows 7, Windows 2008.
SERVER. A group of interconnected computers is called a network, which allows users to share and connect to the network. Server is computer with very high speed as compared to other computers. It controls and secures all the operations of network. Many special components are installed in a server that enables it to connect with other computer networks.
CLIENT. A client is a computer that can access information stored in the server. There can be single server in an office which gives its services to many clients that are connected to it. Client/Server network offers a very efficient means of interconnecting more than ten computers, which allows the exchange of a huge amount of information as in any big office or on Local Area Network. It is the server that stores all the files on a Client/Server Network. This enables the files to be easily managed, protected and a backup to be created. However, if the server breaks down then the whole network is affected.
TOKEN RING NETWORK. Token Ring Network are used in large organizations, e.g. banks and insurance companies. Token Ring works by transmitting a single “packet” of files from one computer to the other. This packet collects and delivers information as it travels around the network.
ATM. Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is an extremely efficient way to exchange large amount of information on a network which may or may not be very busy. ATM sends equal sized information in pieces, called cells. Big companies use ATM in order to transfer information from one network to another.